Wednesday, 9 July 2014

Bibliography (Myat Noe)

When do carnivorous plants feed on insects?

1. Rice, B. (n.d.). The Carnivorous Plant FAQ: What do carnivorous plants eat?. The Carnivorous Plant FAQ: What do carnivorous plants eat?. Retrieved July 6, 2014, from

2. Szesze, M. (n.d.). Growing Tips | Carnivorous Plant Nursery. Growing Tips | Carnivorous Plant Nursery. Retrieved July 7, 2014, from

Monday, 7 July 2014

Bibliography (Xueqin)

How do we measure our water quality? (2012)How do we measure our water quality? . (2012, March 6). Retrieved July 4, 2014, from <>

Bibliography (Chelsea)

Which method is better for the growth of plants - Hydroponics or natural environment? Why?

Plant Nutrients. (n.d.). Plant Nutrients. Retrieved July 4, 2014, from

Bibliography (Nehal)

What is the effect of nitrogen on agricultural production systems?

1. Jones, G. (2001, January 1). Healthyag - Alternative Agriculture - Agricultural Production Systems. Healthyag - Alternative Agriculture - Agricultural Production Systems. Retrieved July 4, 2014, from


Literature Review [Myat Noe]

When do carnivorous plants feel a need to feed on insects? 

Barry Rice (2005) investigated what carnivorous plants ate. According to him, it mostly depends on where they live. Many carnivorous plants live with their traps submerged in water and they capture small and large prey. Meanwhile, Pinguicula and Drosera often catch flying insects like gnats, flies, and moths. Pitcher plants capture foraging insects, especially flies, moths, wasps, butterflies, beetles, and ants, while Venus flytraps capture any crawling insect.

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According to tips given by Michael Szesze (2005), carnivorous plants should not be fed or fertilized as the plants will be able to collect enough insects on their own to do well. Most carnivorous plants only need an insect or two a month in order to flourish. He said never use raw meat or cheese, as large pieces will kill the traps and that the best source of nutrition are probably freeze-dried insects from a pet shop, or a culture of wingless fruit flies. He also says that carnivorous plants grown with no insect supplemental feedings will not flourish and to not overdo it. 
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Saturday, 5 July 2014

Literature Review [Nehal]

What is the effect of nitrogen on agricultural production systems?

Jones (2001) mentioned that every agricultural production system is unique and can be related to numerous inherent assumptions and basic limitations. In one of his articles, he discovered that farmers are slowly manipulating their agricultural systems while developing certain practices which help to grow healthy plants. One of the organic methods used was crop rotation.
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Chachurs (n.d.) understands what happens to the nitrogen in the soil. Most of the Nitrogen (97 – 98%) in the soil is tied up in the organic matter and unavailable to plants.  Only 2 – 3% is in the inorganic form of nitrate and the ammonium forms that is available to plants.  The organic matter is continuously being broken down by microorganisms and released as inorganic Nitrogen into the soil.  This process is called mineralization.  

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Literature Review [Chelsea]

Which method is better for the growth of plants - Hydroponics or natural environment? Why?

BBC (n.d.) investigated what hydroponics is. According to them, it is a form of growing crops in glasshouses where soil is replaced by a mineral solution pumped around the plant roots. Without soil, there is no risk for any disease by soil organisms but the plants have to be supported. Growth can be controlled by making changes to the concentration of minerals in the solution. Food products are grown there to increase productivity, for example growing tomatoes in glasshouses. An advantage of this artificial environment is that the growing conditions are observable and is within control to improve productivity. Furthermore, it allows crops to be grown where there is no soil. Hydroponics is a costly method of growing plants, so it is only used for high-value crops.

ncagr (n.d.) investigated what mineral nutrients were required for plants to grow. The primary nutrients are nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. They usually are lacking from the soil first as plants use large amounts of them to grow and survive. The secondary nutrients are calcium, magnesium, and sulfur. There are usually enough of these in the soil. Lastly, there are the micronutrients, which are only needed in very small quantities, but essential for plant growth. They are boron, copper, iron, chloride, manganese, molybdenum and zinc. 
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Friday, 4 July 2014

Literature Review [Xueqin]

How do we determine the water quality using water plants?

Water quality can be measured by 7 methods. 
  • Temperature 
  • Amount of dissolved oxygen in it 
  • pH level 
  • Turbidity level

Water temperature because it determines the kinds of animals that can survive in a stream as certain animals are adapted to only survive under certain conditions. It can also the affect the chemistry of the water. Scientists also measure dissolved oxygen to know how much oxygen is available in the water for fish and other aquatic organisms to breathe. Healthy waters have high levels of dissolved oxygen. These include temperature, the amount and speed of flowing water, the plants and algae that produce oxygen during the day and take it back in at night, pollution in the water, and the composition of the stream bottom. pH levels determine the concentration of hydrogen in the water. Changes in pH can affect how chemicals dissolve in the water and whether organisms are affected by them. Highly acidic water can be lethal to fish and other aquatic organisms. Scientists measure the clarity of water to determine how many particles are floating around. Scientists use turbidity measurements to calculate the inputs from erosion and nutrients. By taking samples of fish, plants and smaller organisms. Other organisms can survive only in water that's very clean, so finding those organisms who are able to survive in the water it shows that the water is very clean. (U.S. Environmental protection agency, 2012)
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Thursday, 3 July 2014

[03072014] Background research & constructing a hypothesis

Independent variable (what to change)
Dependant variable (what is observable)
Controlled Variables
(constant variables)
What is the effect of nitrogen on agricultural production systems?
Amount of nitrogen
- The effect of nitrogen on agricultural systems
- Crops/ plants used
- Amount of nitrogen used
- Amount of plants/crops used
- Amount of water and light provided
If nitrogen is provided for agricultural production systems, then the crops will grow well.
When do carnivorous plants feel a need to feed on insects?
Time of the day
When the carnivorous plant feeds on insects
- Species of carnivorous plants used
- Type of insects used
- Number of insects
- Number of plants
- Place
If the carnivorous plants are left outside in the afternoon, then it will consume the most number of insects.
Which method is better for the growth of plants - Hydroponics or natural environment? Why?
Method of growing plants (Hydroponics/ Natural Environment)
The growth of plants measured in height
- Type of plant
- Number of plants
- Amount of sunlight provided
If the plants are grown by hydroponics, then it will grow better because they are placed in a special environment that meets all its needs, and in the environment, they are not prone to any diseases etc.
How do we determine the water quality using water plants?
Water used
- Growth of the plant in height to deduce the water quality that it is growing in
-The type of plants used
- Amount of water used
- Amount of sunlight
- Number of plants
If the plants are grown in water with low quality, they will not grow well, and vice versa.

Tuesday, 1 July 2014

[01072014] Science.

What is Science? 

Science comprises of both knowledge and process. It is a way of discovering how things work, and how to improve on them. It is the interaction between humans and our surroundings, and the understanding of our relationship.

It is also the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment.

The Scientific Method
  1. Ask a question
  2. Do a background research
  3. Construct a Hypothesis
  4. Test your hypothesis by doing an Experiment
  5. Analyse your data 
  6. Communicate your results 
It is also important to conduct a fair test. A fair test refers to changing only one variable throughout the whole experiment, as well as having a "control", and also repeating the procedures at least 2 - 3 times so as to ensure that the results are reliable. 

The Engineering Method
  1. Define a problem
  2. Do a background research
  3. Specify requirements
  4. Brainstorm solutions
  5. Choose the best solution
  6. Do developmental work
  7. Build a prototype 
  8. Test and Redesign

The engineering design process is a detailed series of steps that we all use to come up with the optimal solution to a problem (considering the pros and cons of using that solution). Most of the time, it includes coming up with a solution by designing or innovating a new product, making it more efficient, that meets the requirement of the task, thus solving the problem.

  1. "The Engineering Design Process." The Engineering Design Process. Science Buddies, n.d. Web. 30 June 2014. <>.
  2. "Steps of the Scientific Method." Steps of the Scientific Method. Science Buddies, n.d. Web. 29 June 2014. <>.